Gas Geology - the password to solve the problem of coal mine gas control

Coal is the main energy in China, and will remain dominant, and gas is threatening the security of our coal mine "the first killer." Therefore, it is imperative to raise awareness of the current serious situation of coal mine gas safety production, comprehensively carry out coal mine gas safety production inspection, deepen coal mine gas special rectification, strengthen gas comprehensive prevention and control work, crack down on illegal and illegal production and construction behavior, and strictly implement coal mine enterprises. Subject responsibility. After the action is put into practice, the combination of practice and theory must be realized. Only by applying the research results of coal mine gas theory to the national coal production practice to the greatest extent can we be more perfect in saving the lives of miners and ensuring national energy security.

Effective means

Gas management should also improve emergency rescue management

Regarding the coal mine gas outburst mechanism, the most important thing is to take into account the geological structure and tectonic coal in the experimental and theoretical research; the most important thing about the gas explosion is to master the gas overrun caused by the sudden increase of gas emission, scientific monitoring, Do a good job in prevention. Everything has its laws, coal mine gas control work is in place, no accidents, few accidents are the best. Once an accident occurs, a gas geological information platform should be established to achieve real-time forecasting and forecasting of gas geological reasons at any time. It can make rapid decision-making, scientific decision-making, and cut off the chain. This is the key first step to achieve emergency rescue and an effective means to improve coal mine gas control.

The primary task

Gas geological theory research: The geological origin of gas is complex, from macroscopically to the theory of plate tectonics and regional geological tectonic evolution, and microscopically involves the chemical structure of coal. The relationship between the occurrence of gas in coal seams and coal particles and coal molecules has undergone an extremely complicated process of geological history evolution involving complex regional geology, coalfield geology, coal chemistry, etc.; its desorption, The laws of migration and flow involve knowledge of fluid mechanics; it emerges from coal mining and coal and gas outbursts, and involves geodynamics, structural geology, rock mechanics, and mining. The distribution of gas control controls the gas content, the amount of gushing and the amount of coalbed methane resources; the complexity of geological structure controls the risk of coal and gas outburst; the developmental characteristics of tectonic coal control the difficulty of gas (clay gas) extraction and gas prevention . Practice has proved that only by using plate tectonics theory, regional geological tectonic evolution theory, gas storage structure and hierarchical control theory can reveal the gas occurrence mechanism, can reveal the development law of tectonic coal, can reveal the mechanism of coal and gas outburst, and reveal different Gas geological laws in the scale range can be used for accurate gas prediction and targeted gas disaster prevention and gas (CBM) resource extraction.

Research on the theory of stepwise control of gas occurrence structure: There are five coal-bearing strata in China's geological age, which are distributed in five regions of North China, South China, Northeast China, Northwest China and Yunnan Province. They are respectively affected by the Pacific Kula Plate and the Philippines Plate. The tectonics of the Siberian plate, India and other plates in multiple phases. Where is the occurrence of coal and gas outburst, where the gas content is high, the gas resources are large, where the coal seam is a low gas occurrence area, where the structure is complex, the coal seam is seriously damaged, the tectonic coal is developed, where the coal seam gas is difficult to extract, and where is suitable for the surface coal seam. Gas development, etc., are controlled by geological tectonic effects. The Institute of Gas Geology, Henan Polytechnic University, completed the "1:2 million China coal seam gas geological map", the geology and gas prediction of mine gas in Pingdingshan, Zhengzhou, Jiaozuo, Yubei, Jincheng and other mining areas, and prepared a gas geological map. Gas storage constructs a stepwise control theory. Using the theory of gas storage to construct a "graduate control theory of 1:2 million China's coal seam gas geological map", in the absence of data, the "high gas belt in the Qinshui coal field and the high gas belt in the eastern margin of the Ordos Basin" became the national " CBM (mineral gas) development and utilization of the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan" to determine the CBM development base. Using the gas storage structure to construct the step-by-step control theory, in 2004, in the “10·20” large coal and gas outburst accident in Daping Coal Mine of Zhengzhou, in the case of the 150-meter roadway being blocked, it was concluded that the depth of the ground was 612 meters. The rocky excavation face was shot, and the conclusion of the reverse fault that was inclined to the southwest and northwest and the drop of about 12 meters was revealed. It coincided with the conclusion of the accident investigation team and played an important role in the accident handling.

China has abundant coal resources and abundant gas (coal gas) resources. The gas in the coal seam causes serious gas emission and gas outburst disasters during coal mining. Although gas (coal gas) is a clean energy source, due to the complex geological evolution history of coal mine gas, gas is difficult to control and difficult to extract.

The theoretical system uses the theory of plate tectonics and the theory of regional geological tectonic evolution to study the evolution history of regional geological structures and tectonic stress fields and the distribution characteristics of tectonic traces. Based on this, the geotectonic locations, geological tectonic evolution and tectonic trace distribution of the mining area and the mine are studied. feature. According to the regional tectonic stress field, structural traces to control the structure of the mining area, the tectonic stress field of the mining area, the tectonic traces to control the mine structure and the mining face structure, the high-level tectonic stress field and the tectonic traces control the low-level tectonic stress field and the structural traces, combined A large number of gas geological information reveals the geological laws of gas, and predicts, divides, and divides the gas occurrence and high, gas permeability and coal and gas outburst danger.

The research on the distribution and control of gas occurrence has been included in the national special project. The topic “Distribution law and control factors of gas occurrence in key coal mines in China” is aimed at the complex geological structure of 58 key mining areas in China, with high gas content, low gas permeability, tectonic coal development, serious gas disasters, and difficulty in gas drainage. Compilation of gas geological maps of mines and mining areas in 58 key mining areas, and preparation of gas geological maps of 1:500,000 to 1:1 million coal mines in 26 provinces (districts), and finalization of the preparation of gas geological maps of 1:2.5 million Chinese coal mines The National Coal Mine Gas Geology Information Platform reveals the control mechanism of coal and gas outburst structure in key coal mining areas and the control mechanism of gas extraction structure in gas enrichment areas, clarifies the genesis and distribution of structural coal in key coal mines, and conducts gas (coal methane) zoning and gasification. (CBM) development type of block grading to solve the problem of coordinated development of coalbed methane and coal in China. The project's project marks the country's emphasis on gas control and utilization, and it also marks that the school's gas geological research team has been promoted to the ranks of the national team, and its research strength has reached the domestic leading level.

The key factor

Apply new technologies, new equipment, new results

Gas geological research is forward-looking and instructive. The progress of gas geology needs to further improve the gas geological theory, including the gas geological law, the gas storage structure, and the multi-level gas geological map of China's coal mines. The preparation of multi-level gas geological maps in coal mines has far-reaching significance. In coal mine production, the smaller the scope of gas outburst danger zones is, the greater the significance. Gas geological maps and gas geological theory need to be further improved. Now study the gas storage structure step by step control, using the plate tectonics theory, regional control of mining areas, mining areas to control the mine. The study of gas geological laws and the study of the theory of stepwise control of gas occurrence structure need to be further in-depth, and this direction is of great significance. It guides the research direction of gas prediction and makes the gas prevention work more detailed. The area controls the mining area and the mining area to control the mine, and gradually reduces the control range until the mining area and the mining surface, so as to clarify the gas geological laws. However, under the guidance of gas geological theory, it is necessary to further develop new technologies, such as gas content. The gas content in the zone where the structural coal is developed in the same minefield is large, and the gas emission in the recovery is obviously increased. However, in fact, when the structural coal sampling test is conducted, the gas content measured is particularly fast, and the measured gas content is much smaller than that of the original structural coal. This makes the gas content prediction inaccurate and affects the gas emission forecast, which also affects the ventilation reliability. From the geological law of gas, the location of the extrusion or the part where the coal suddenly thickens and the part where the coal is developed, these parts are prone to sudden gas escaping, which is easy to cause the gas to overflow and exceed the limit, which is easy to cause gas explosion. condition. Therefore, it is possible to grasp the changes of gas geology at any time by compiling gas geological maps and gas geological informatization methods, and to monitor the changes in gas emission in real time, so that ventilation can be reliably achieved. The most important thing is to keep abreast of gas geological information.

Theoretical support

Preparation of coal mine gas geological map

Professor Yang Lisheng from Henan Polytechnic University puts forward: "There is a mining plan for mining. There is a contour map of the coal seam floor in the geology. There is a ventilation system map for ventilation, and the gas geological map must be compiled for gas."

Gas geological map is the best archive of coal mine gas geological data. It is not only a high concentration of gas prediction, disaster prevention and gas drainage practice for many years, but also an important theory to guide the accurate prediction of gas resources, gushing volume and outstanding danger in the future. in accordance with. Prepare geological maps of coal mine gas, highly summarize the gas geological information accumulated over the years, clarify the impact of geological activities on gas occurrence, reflect the invisible laws on the drawings, and clarify the difficulties and key points of gas control, gas prediction And governance can be targeted. A large number of practices have proved that gas geological maps are an important platform for gas control research, communication, and decision-making, and are the basis for controlling gas and preventing accidents. Professor Yang Lisheng believes that the national geological mapping of coal mine gas should be a series of pagoda-type maps, starting with the compilation of mining face, mining area, and mine gas geological map, and then compiling the geological map of the mining area, province (region, city), and finally compiling China. Coal seam gas geological map. Gas geological maps at all levels have different levels of predictive and management functions. The geological map of coal mine gas is highly summarized, with prominent themes, clear layers and clear at a glance.

In addition, the preparation of gas geological maps will help to achieve coordinated development of coal and coalbed methane resources. Evaluating the gas (clay methane) resources in the mining area through gas geological map is conducive to rationally arranging the connection between coal resource exploitation and coalbed methane resource development, providing technology for the coordinated development of coal and coalbed methane resources and achieving win-win for coal enterprises and coalbed methane enterprises. support.

Gas prediction is of great significance and human life is a matter of life. With the increase of mining depth, the change of geological structure complexity and the different mining processes, the gas geological laws are changing. To ensure the safe production of coal mines, gas geological law research and gas geological map research should serve the whole process of coal mine safety production. It is necessary to set up full-time personnel to track gas geological information, to test gas geological parameters in time, and to collect and sort gas geological information in time. Continuously improve the understanding of gas geological laws and timely correct the gas prediction results. The preparation of gas geological maps requires that the data test data be reliable and complete, and absolutely no mistakes are allowed. The data should be tested and predicted according to the standards and regulations promulgated by the state and the industry. The gas geological map is the basis for the safety production management and gas control research of the leaders and coal mining enterprises at all levels. The gas geological information platform can be developed by compiling gas geological maps at all levels of the coal mine to realize the visualization of gas control decisions.

Gas governance: a factor that cannot be ignored is people

Gas governance needs to be based on theoretical foundation, law at the helm, technical support, and "human harmony." Recently, China's coal mine gas accidents have occurred frequently, and most of the accident types are liability accidents, highlighting that some local governments and their relevant departments have paid insufficient attention to coal mine safety production work, and have not properly handled the relationship between safety and production, safety and development, safety and efficiency. To combat illegal and illegal production, and the implementation of the main responsibility is not in place, the hidden dangers of investigation and management are not deep, the preventive measures are not implemented, and the on-site management is chaotic. Some major hidden dangers are not managed in time, and eventually the accident is caused, and the lessons are extremely profound. It fully demonstrates that the key to the occurrence of coal mine accidents is that only the leadership attaches great importance to the improvement of the quality of the employees, so that it can occur less or even without accidents.

In the 1980s, under the leadership of the Technical Department of the Ministry of Coal Industry, Yang Lisheng, Zhang Zimin, Chen Mingqiang and Zhang Keshu of the Jiaozuo Mining Institute compiled more than 500 mines, 125 mines and 25 provincial (regional) gas geological maps in 1986. . After 25 years, the national coal mine gas geological map preparation work has been highly valued by the National Coal Mine Gas Prevention and Control Inter-Ministerial Coordination Leading Group. On April 15, 2009, the National Energy Administration issued a notice on the organization of the national geological map of coal mine gas. The document stated: “The preparation of the national geological map of coal mine gas is aimed at arranging the geological exploration and mining of the national coal mine for many years and the gas geology exposed by the test. The data, using gas geological and gas control research results, reveals the geological laws of coal mine gas in the country, provides a basic basis for preventing gas disasters and utilizing coalbed methane resources. It can also be incorporated into teaching and training, popularize gas geological knowledge, and improve the prevention and control of gas by coal enterprises. techinque level.

Since May 2009, in addition to Henan Province, the energy bureaus and coal bureaus (bureaus) of the 25 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) have issued “Notices on the preparation of coal mine gas geological maps”. On May 18, 2009, the Hebei Provincial Development and Reform Commission issued a document. On May 20, the Anhui Provincial Economic and Information Commission issued a document. On the same day, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Development and Reform Commission issued a document; on June 8, the Yunnan Provincial Development and Reform Commission The document “Notice on the preparation of geological maps for coal mine gas” was issued. In succession, the Liaoning Coal Industry Bureau, the Shaanxi Provincial Coal Industry Bureau, the Shanxi Provincial Coal Department, the Hunan Provincial Development and Reform Commission, the Jiangxi Provincial Development and Reform Commission, and the Guizhou Provincial Development and Reform Commission issued the “Notice on the Preparation of Coal Mine Gas Geological Maps”. Then the provinces successively held training courses on coal mine gas geological map preparation work. The number of participants in the country is more than 5,000.

On June 8-9, 2009, the National Energy Administration held a national coal mine gas geological map preparation work start-up and training meeting at Henan University of Technology, Jiaozuo City, Henan Province. The main task of the meeting was to mobilize the deployment of national coal mine gas geological maps and train the key personnel of the mapping technology. More than 500 representatives and experts from 26 coal-producing provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) development and reform commissions, coal industry management departments, state-owned key coal mining enterprises, relevant institutions of higher learning and scientific research institutions attended the meeting. Comrade Wu Hao, chief engineer of the National Energy Administration, attended the meeting and made an important speech.

December 12, 2009, director of the State Coal Mine Safety Supervision Bureau Zhao iron hammer commissioned Equipment Department of Science and Technology reply states: "Gas Geological coal is the basis of coal mine gas control and utilization, 40 years, geological study of gas, Henan Polytechnic University insisted, and achieved gratifying The research results have been widely used in coal mine gas control work, and have contributed to the coal mine gas control work in China. The book "Gas Geology" is both theoretical and practical, and it is not only for coal mine gas control work. It has certain guidance, and at the same time it is a good material for preventing and controlling gas disasters."

The State Administration of Work Safety and the State Administration of Coal Mine Safety attach great importance to the construction of the State Key Laboratory of Gas Geology and Coal Mine Gas Geology and Gas Disaster Prevention. Luo Lin, Hammer and other leading comrades made important instructions, and the hammer director specially listened. Henan University of Science and Technology reported on the construction of the State Key Laboratory of Gas Geology and Disaster Prevention, and made important instructions. At present, the “Henan Key Laboratory of Gas Geology and Gas Control” of Henan University of Technology has been approved as a national key laboratory cultivation base for the province. This is the only national key laboratory cultivation base for gas geological and gas control in China. As an important science and technology of comprehensive gas prevention and control, the construction of the breeding base plays an important role in improving the safety production status of coal mines in China and building a harmonious and safe mine.

Important foundation

Follow the gas geological laws

All gas phenomena are subject to geological factors. The study of gas geological laws is the core content of gas geology, revealing the intrinsic connection between gas and geological factors reveals the geological laws of gas. Coalfield geological theory, gas storage structure stepwise control theory, tectonic coal theory, hydrogeological theory, geophysical theory and other methods can be used to study the relationship between geological unit gas and geological factors in different levels; study different coal-bearing strata formation Gas geological laws under coal conditions; study the gas geological laws of different areas, mining areas to mines, mining areas, mining faces, etc. A large number of engineering practices and gas geological surveys have shown that large-scale and extra-large coal and gas outburst accidents in low-gas mines are not uncommon, especially in recent years, with the increasing depth and strength of coal mining in China, low gas mine coal and Gas outburst accidents have occurred. In 2004, the “10·20” extra large coal and gas outburst of Daping Coal Mine of Zhengzhou Coal Industry Group triggered a gas explosion accident. The coal seam is affected by the extensive sliding structure damage. On the one hand, the sliding structure further shears the coal seam and on the other hand, the gas is released, so the gas weathering zone has a large depth. As the law of gas weathering belts is not clear, roadway tunneling directly enters the gas outburst danger zone from the low gas zone. In 2009, the "11.21" extra large coal and gas outburst in Hegang Xinxing Coal Mine in Heilongjiang caused a gas explosion accident. Coal mining is the Cretaceous coal, capping bedrock thin, overlying the coal seam is mainly the accumulation of pyroclastic rocks, uneven thickness, gas weathered zone depth, regularity is not obvious, coupled in Siberia plate and the Pacific plate two In the superposition zone of the dynamic system, the tectonic stress field is strong, and the tunneling is directly entered into the dangerous area of ​​coal and gas outburst by the gas weathering zone.

The geological structure of China's coal mining areas is complex and diverse, and the gas geological laws are extremely complex. Therefore, low gas mines also need to strengthen the study of gas geological laws. Only by clarifying the geological laws of gas can we reliably establish models for gas content prediction, gas emission prediction, coal and gas outburst risk prediction, and gas resource prediction and evaluation. Only by clarifying the geological laws of gas in different regions can we help to formulate macroscopic plans for gas control.

Gas geological law research is the basis of gas prediction and prevention research. Coal mine gas (coal gas) is a product of coal formation. The occurrence and distribution of coal seam gas is the result of the evolution of the tectonic movement of the coal seam and is controlled by various complicated geological factors. Each geological tectonic movement, the role of different tectonic stress fields, plate tectonic collisions, regional tectonic compression, shearing or stretching, and rifting, causing uplifts or depressions, all affect the formation and preservation of gas, and at the same time form a series of Different levels of faults, folds or magmatism can cause different degrees of deformation and failure of coal seams and surrounding rocks in the area and its different mining areas (coal fields), mines, mining areas and mining faces, forming tectonic coal and causing hydrological and geostress Wait for changes in different conditions. This series of geological factors control the occurrence and distribution of gas in coal seams, such as gas content, gas pressure, coal seam permeability, etc. From the region to the mining area, mine, mining area and mining face, there are gas accumulation under different geological conditions. In the state of existence, there are gas geological laws of different levels and different geological conditions.

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